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  Study in Canada
 
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>> About Canada
 
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>> Why Canada
 
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  Study in Canada:

 

 
  About the country:  
     
 

Capital

Ottawa

Official Languages

English, French

Area (Total)

9,984,670 km2

Population (2012 estimate)

34,936,000

Currency

Canadian dollar ($) (CAD)

GDP-Per capita

$40,541

Time Difference

Eastern (EST) (UTC−5) for Ottawa – 10:30 hours behind IST

 International dialling code:

+1


Canada  is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean. Canada is the world's second-largest country by total area, and its common border with the United States is the world's longest land border.

Canada is a federal state governed as a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy, with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state. The country is officially bilingual and multicultural at the federal level.  Canada's advanced economy is one of the world's largest and relies largely upon its natural resources and international trade, Canada ranks sixth globally in human development.

History

The first inhabitants of Canada were native Indian peoples, primarily the Inuit (Eskimo). The Norse explorer Leif Eriksson probably reached the shores of Canada (Labrador or Nova Scotia) in 1000, but the history of the white man in the country actually began in 1497, when John Cabot, an Italian in the service of Henry VII of England, reached Newfoundland or Nova Scotia. Canada was taken for France in 1534 by Jacques Cartier.

The actual settlement of New France, as it was then called, began in 1604 at Port Royal in what is now Nova Scotia; in 1608, Québec was founded. France's colonization efforts were not very successful, but French explorers by the end of the 17th century had penetrated beyond the Great Lakes to the western prairies and south along the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico.

Meanwhile, the English Hudson's Bay Company had been established in 1670. Because of the valuable fisheries and fur trade, a conflict developed between the French and English; in 1713, Newfoundland, Hudson Bay, and Nova Scotia (Acadia) were lost to England.

During the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), England extended its conquest, and the British general James Wolfe won his famous victory over Gen. Louis Montcalm outside Québec on Sept. 13, 1759. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 gave England control.

Later in 1776, the year of American Independence, colonists loyal to the British Empire fled USA and settled in Canada.

Geography

Canada occupies a major northern portion of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the US state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. Greenland is to the northeast, while Saint Pierre and Miquelon is south of Newfoundland.

By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. By land area alone, Canada ranks fourth.


Economy

Canada is the world's eleventh-largest economy, with a 2011 nominal GDP of approximately US$1.74 trillion. It is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the G8, and is one of the world's top ten trading nations, with a highly globalized economy. Canada is a mixed economy, ranking above the US and most western European nations on the Heritage Foundation's index of economic freedom. In 2008, Canada's imported goods were worth over $442.9 billion, of which $280.8 billion originated from the United States, $11.7 billion from Japan, and $11.3 billion from the United Kingdom.  The country's 2009 trade deficit totaled C$4.8 billion, compared with a C$46.9 billion surplus in 2008.

Climate

In Canada, there are four different seasons: spring, summer, autumn (fall), and winter. In the winter, the days are shorter and colder. In the summer, the days are longer and warmer. Overall, the climate varies dramatically across Canada. Many factors influence climate, such as distance from large bodies of water, latitude, elevation, and prevailing winds.

Some regions, particularly the southern coastal regions, have relatively mild climates. Temperatures might range from -10° to 5° Celsius in the winter and 10°C to 30°C in the summer. In these coastal regions, there is more rain than snow during the winter. Some parts of Canada, such as the West Coast, are quite humid. Other parts, like the Prairies, are very dry.

Culture

Canada's culture draws influences from its broad range of constituent nationalities, and policies that promote multiculturalism are constitutionally protected. In Quebec, cultural identity is strong, and many French-speaking commentators speak of a culture of Quebec that is distinct from English Canadian culture. However, as a whole, Canada is in theory a cultural mosaic – a collection of several regional, aboriginal, and ethnic subcultures. Government policies such as publicly funded health care, higher taxation to redistribute wealth, the outlawing of capital punishment, strong efforts to eliminate poverty, an emphasis on multiculturalism, strict gun control, and the legalization of same-sex marriage are further social indicators of Canada's political and cultural values.

Food

The favorite foods of Canadians vary slightly from region to region, and are strongly influenced by their family heritage, especially in relation to holiday celebrations. Along the Atlantic coast, seafood and dishes derived from English traditions (except in Québec) are common. In Québec, favorite foods come from the area's French heritage. Throughout Canada, maple syrup and maple products are popular, reflecting the significance of the maple tree, whose leaf adorns the flag of Canada.



 
 
 
 
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